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Definition of Mysticism  

Introduction to “History of Philosophy Eastern and Western” says that the principle of mysticism is that “knowledge of reality is…obtained through...inner experience”1.  Encyclopedia Britannica quotes Adolf Lasson as writing: “The essence of Mysticism is the assertion of an intuition which transcends the temporal categories of understanding ”.2 The New American Encyclopedia says about Mysticism: "the word is used to refer to the intuitive apprehension in a special degree of the presence or power of the deity" 3 The Catholic Encyclopedia says: “What man cannot know by natural reason, he can know through revelation and faith; …what he cannot attain to by his natural power he can reach by the grace of God. ….To some souls…even in the present life, God gives a very special grace by which they are enabled to feel His sensible presence; this is true mystical contemplation ”.4 


Human mind becomes cognizant of every experience that the human has and therefore has knowledge of every such experience, whether mystical or any other. Hence, for the purpose of this discussion, “mystical knowledge” includes “mystical experiences” and mysticism may be defined as “the knowledge imparted by the Spiritual Dimension”. Mysticism however has subjective and objective aspects.  

Subjective experiences are very often difficult to be conveyed. An example is taste: how would one convey the taste of a particular food to another, who has never seen or tasted even the ingredients? The only solution is to taste the particular food. Since a vast amount of mystical knowledge is obtained from subjective mystical experiences, it is difficult to convey much of mystical knowledge. Here again, the solution is to taste and see. The Biblical Psalmist, who has experienced that the God is good, advises “Taste and see that the Lord is good” (Psalm 34:9). Mystical experience is to a large extent beyond verbal communication and St. John of the Cross says: “He only who has passed through them can know them, but even he cannot explain them”.5 Bertrand Russell goes to the extreme extent of saying that mystical world “would have a structure different from that of language, and would therefore be incapable of being verbally described”.6   

Mysticism also includes objective phenomena. Phenomena wrought by supernatural forces or powers in human bodies, such as healing and in nature, such as changes in physical objects are part of mysticism. Encounter with such objective phenomena radically changes our worldview and understanding of reality.  

Pastor Yonggi Cho of Korea calls the Spiritual Dimension the “Fourth Dimension”7 if we exclude the Time dimension or the “Fifth Dimension” if Time is treated as the fourth dimension. Yonggi Cho, who has first hand knowledge of Zen and other Eastern mysticisms, says that, in the Spiritual Dimension, one is exposed to the power of the Holy Spirit, the Third Person in the Holy Trinity, as well as demonic spirits.


Divine Mysticism

To be exact, “Divine Mysticism is the knowledge imparted by the Holy Spirit”. The Bible presents humans as a tri-unity of spirit, soul (mind) and body  (ref.1Thessalonians5:23). The Holy Spirit is experienced by the human spirit. The Bible says, “the (Holy) Spirit himself testifies with our spirit” (Romans 8:16). God is a Trinity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. God is one in essence, three in person and three in functions. Holy Spirit is the Spirit of God the Father and God the Son, Jesus Christ. Hence Holy Spirit may sometimes be experienced as God the Father, sometimes as Jesus and at other times as Holy Spirit Himself.                         


Being omnipotent and omniscient, the Holy Spirit knows human thoughts and can impart His thoughts into human minds. Sometimes the Holy Spirit uses the agency of the angels to communicate with humans as when “an angel of the Lord appeared to Zechariah” (Luke 1:11), “to.. a virgin…The virgin’s name was Mary” (Luke 1:26) and to Joseph “ in a dream”(Matthew 1:20). To grant a spiritual experience or knowledge is the sole prerogative of the Holy Spirit. One cannot demand it or earn it through good deeds or prayers or rituals.  

Even one who receives divine mystical knowledge, is always exposed to demonic mystical influence. Hence it is necessary to test every mystical experience to verify whether it agrees with the teachings of the Bible. 


Divine Mysticism of “Non-believers”

In special cases the Holy Spirit imparts divine mystical knowledge even to those who may be considered “non-believers” – however, only God can decide whether one is a “believer” or not. Normally divine mystical experiences are granted to those, who have spiritual openness, intellectual integrity and personal holiness, to help them to know the true God. Cornelius is an example of such a person (ref. Acts 10). Many such persons throughout the world and throughout history have had such experiences. Twentieth century examples include experiences of Begum Bilquis Sheikh of Pakistan8 and Sadhu Sundar Singh9 and Arjun Bhaskar10 of India. Pre-Christian impartation of divine mystical knowledge, referred to as praeparatio evangelica11, have been God’s preparation of the humankind for the coming Savior.     


God appearing to Abimelech king of Gerar (ref. Genesis 20) in a dream and speaking to and through Balaam (ref. Numbers 22 to 24) are examples of mystical encounters of the divine kind of persons who may not have been very righteous.  We note that God also answers the queries of some who combines idolatry with worship of God as in the case of the Levite priest (Judges 18:5-6). This indeed makes the deep understanding of biblical commandments and astute discernment of mystical realm absolutely necessary to stay clear of pitfalls. 

Demonic Mysticism

“Demonic Mysticism” is the knowledge obtained or imparted by contact with any spirit other than the Holy Spirit or angels of the Lord. It is the human spirit that experiences these contacts with the other spirits. Demonic world consists of Satan and his hordes of demons. Though Satan can hear human speech and can impart his thoughts into human minds, he cannot know human thoughts. Satan communicates through the agency of his demons. Under certain conditions, humans can demand demonic mystical experience from Satan, or earn it through obedience to demonic demands or performance of demonic rites.


Often the experiences of Demonic Mysticism with its sense of peace, ecstasy, demonic inner voice, demonic glossolalia, visions and various supernatural phenomena are very similar to divine mystical experience. Even if those who have mystical experience are righteous or use Christian prayers such as the Lord’s Prayer, that does not prevent the experiences from being demonic. Victor H. Ernest says that their Spiritualist group would “open the séance by saying the Lord’s Prayer. We ended: … in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit”.12 Divine mysticism leads to the Beatific Vision, while demonic mysticism leads to  “Diabolic Vision” to use a phrase of Bertrand Russell.13


The principal goal of Hindu mysticism is to come to the realization tat tvam asi (Chandogya Upanishad, 6.9) “that thou art”. Twentieth century Indian mystic poet Rabindranath Tagore talks about pantheistic mysticism, experiencing God in creation. Medieval Christian mystic Meister Eckehart calls this the pan-en-henic experience. Similar to the ancient Indian mystic he also says: “The knower and the known are one. God and I, we are one in knowledge” and “There is no distinction between us.”14 However, these experiences do not stand the scrutiny of the Word of God, which never identifies the Creator with the creature or creation. Hence one is forced to infer that these mystical experiences are of the demonic kind.  


Mystical Empowerment of Space, Time and Matter 

A very interesting phenomenon is the impartation of supernatural power to places, certain times and materials. The Holy Bible narrates various instances of such Mystical Empowerment of space, time matter. Mount Moriah witnessed the grandest test of human faith and faithfulness, when Abraham became obedient enough to be willing to sacrifice his son (ref. Genesis 22). This act of faith brought divine blessings not only on Abraham  and his descendents; but also upon that place. And so it was here at Araunah’s threshing floor that the angel of death froze from his activity (ref. 2 Samuel 16) and it was here that the Temple was built (2Chronicles 3:1-2). This mystically empowered place became the earthly seat of the Creator Yahweh. Jacob found presence of God at Luz and named the place Bethel- the house of God (Genesis 28:19). The bank of Jordan, where John was baptizing is another place that was mystically empowered. Perhaps Jesus himself was baptized here. Thus an open heaven was created there (Luke 3:21) facilitating the conversion of many and “in that place many believed in Jesus” (John 10:42). Pastor Yonggi Cho of Korea says that these times Korea has an open heaven enabling effortless conversion of many to Christ.15


King Solomon found that “there is time for everything” (Ecclesiastes 3:1). Those “who understood the times” (1Chronicles 12:32) became followers of David. “When the time had fully come, God sent his Son” (Galatians 4:4). At the appointed time Jesus was crucified (Matthew 26:18; John 13:1). There is a time for healing (Jeremiah 8:15) and a time for punishment (Jeremiah 46:21).      


Divinely empowered water became a tool of punishment in Old Testament (Numbers 5:17-27). Bones of Elisha became instruments of resurrection (2 Kings 13:21) and handkerchiefs of Paul of healing (Acts 19:11). The most important example of mystical empowerment of matter these times is the consecrated bread and wine at the divine service of the Lord’s Supper or Communion Service or Eucharist. Yonggi Cho16 says that God granted total physical healing, when the consecrated bread was taken and given to a bedridden believer in his Church in Korea. Dr. D.G.S. Dhinakaran also reports of a similar event that occurred in Mexico.17 Catholic Charismatic believers also report many such instances. 


Space, time and matter can also be demonically empowered or infested. Hence, Paul advises believers to abstain from food sacrificed to idols (1Corithians 10:20). Such supernatural empowerments have been reported in the spiritual or religious arena throughout the world. There are many places where the demonic infestation is strong. From ancient times certain periods of time were considered to be specially affected by demonic activity. Equinoxes are such times, and pagans worshiped the sun god and other demonic entities at those times. Some historians believe, Christmas was begun to be celebrated by Christendom on December 25 to counteract the pagan worships during winter equinox.    

Decision Mysticism

The Holy Spirit begins manifesting His mystical activity among humans by convicting them of sin (John 16:8). But the real work of the Holy Spirit is initiated when one makes a decision for Christ in the “Salvation Experience”. Holy Spirit grants this experience, when one repents of one’s sins, believes that Jesus paid the penalty for one’s sins on the Cross, invites Jesus into one’s life as Savior and Lord and is thus saved or born-again. The born-again experience is the initiation into the true Christian life. The very word “mysticism” is derived from the Greek verb “myein” meaning “to initiate” and the born-again experience is a “mystical experience”. Authentic Christian life is a life of “Divine Mysticism”.


There is an unwelcome association of the word “mystical” with Eastern Religions and New Age Movement. Hence many Protestant, Evangelical and Pentecostal theologians are unfortunately reluctant to call the born-again experience a “mystical experience.” Though many Catholic theologians call the experience of being born-again or saved, a “God experience” or “mystical experience of Christ” or “Christ experience”, Catholics have for long held that this experience is limited to a few privileged “saints”.


Death and Resurrection Mysticism  

One has a mystical experience of the death and resurrection of Christ through the Sacrament of Baptism in water, which is the external sign of the inward grace imparted by the Holy Spirit. If one is spiritually prepared, one has a truly mystical experience.


Through water baptism one dies to sin and is made alive in Christ. “Shall we go on sinning so that grace may increase? By no means! We died to sin; how can we live in it any longer? Or don't you know that all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life. If we have been united with him like this in his death, we will certainly also be united with him in his resurrection. For we know that our old self was crucified with him so that the body of sin might be done away with, that we should no longer be slaves to sin -- because anyone who has died has been freed from sin. Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him. For we know that since Christ was raised from the dead, he cannot die again; death no longer has mastery over him. The death he died, he died to sin once for all; but the life he lives, he lives to God. In the same way, count yourselves dead to sin but alive to God in Christ Jesus. Therefore do not let sin reign in your mortal body so that you obey its evil desires” (Romans 6:1-12). “This water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also -- not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a good conscience toward God. It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand -- with angels, authorities and powers in submission to him” (1 Peter 3:21-22).


By the process of Baptism in water, one puts on Jesus Christ and becomes truly in Christ. “You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus, for all of you who were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ” (Galatians 3:26-27).


In many churches, infants of believers are baptized and as these infants, ipso facto are not spiritually prepared; they may not have a spiritual or mystical experience. “The process of faith and conversion is essentially an adult experience and the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults is now the norm in the Catholic Church. Obviously, infants cannot respond immediately to the call/response aspect of the sacrament. Nor can an infant understand the change of allegiance, the putting off of the old and putting on of the new, the dying and rising, the new life, or the sharing in the life of Christ.”18 However, even in the case of many infants, there occurs a marked improvement in the level of peace and calm they exhibit. These churches, however, have adult baptism rites for unbaptized new believers, such as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults (RCIA) in the Latin Catholic Church, mentioned above. In the early days of Christianity, conversion carried with it the very real threat of persecution and martyrdom. Church leaders were careful that those requesting baptism were aware of the commitment and potential cost involved, and therefore baptism was often reserved for adults. Over the centuries, infant baptism became the norm. After the Second Vatican Council mandated comprehensive liturgical reform, the renewal of the sacraments of initiation led to a revival of the ancient catechumenate with the RCIA…. Like the sacrament itself, the simple scene eloquently conveys through visual means an inner grace and transformation: the passage from death in sin to transfigured new life in Christ.19 Such churches occasionally have a renewal of baptism. “The baptized of all ages are called to a renewal of their baptisms every year at Easter. Through this renewal we all - adults or children - recall our need for continuing repentance, continuing conversion to the way of Jesus.”20 Lately many, who have received baptism as infants undergo a renewal or rebaptism through an adult baptism by immersion. “The Catholic Church sees immersion - going under and coming out of the water - as the most complete sign of dying and rising with Jesus through baptism.”21 “Adult baptism is becoming normative in the Catholic Church, with less emphasis on infant and child baptism.” 22 


Most evangelical and charismatic churches adopt adult baptism and many believers who undergo baptism after due spiritual preparation report significant mystical experiences. Many have been physically healed as they rose out of the baptismal waters. Others testify to a yearning for and deeper understanding of the Sacred Scriptures. Several who go through adult baptism are seen to be committed to the Gospel message in its simplicity and have unshakable faith in the Bible. Many Catholics who go through renewal of baptism by immersion also testify to deep mystical experiences.


Divine Bread Mysticism

The Bible – the Word of God is the food of the human spirit. Jesus quotes: “Man does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God” (Matthew 4:4). As one is born-again the Holy Spirit puts a deep desire to read and meditate upon the teachings of the Bible. The Word of God itself is a result of mystical experiences of the authors. The Bible was a product of special revelations of the Holy Spirit to Moses, to the prophets and to the disciples.


The Bible says: “All Scripture is God-breathed” (2Timothy3:16) and that “no prophesy of Scripture came about by the prophet’s own interpretation. For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit” (2Peter1:20-21). Even the words of Jesus were consigned to writing by the disciples aided by the Holy Spirit, who Jesus said  “will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you”(John 14:26) and “will guide you into all truth”(John16:13).The Word of God is Logos, the capstone, the corner stone,  the only foundation  and touchstone of every belief, mystical experience and mystical knowledge. Any mysticism that does not stand the scrutiny of the plain teachings of the Bible, is not “Divine Mysticism”; but either demonic or flight of human imagination. Even as one reads and meditates upon the word of God, the Holy Spirit speaks to one’s spirit convicting of smallest sin and granting personal revelations of the teachings of the Bible. This is a mystical experience of the Divine Bread-Word of God.


Conversely, only those who are born-again and have an experience of divine mysticism can understand and interpret the true meaning of the Word of God. The Bible itself says: “The man without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned”(1Corinthians2:14). One’s linguistic ability, intellectual acumen and exegetical adroitness alone, will not qualify one to “correctly handle the word of truth”(2Timothy2:15).    


Jesus said, “ I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats this bread, he will live forever. This bread is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world….I tell you the truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him.” (John 6:51,53-56)”. “The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, ‘This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me’. In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me’”(1Corithians 11:23-25). Even as one attends the divine service of the Lord’s Supper or Communion Service or Eucharist and partakes of the bread and wine, believing that they represent or are mystically the body and blood of Jesus, one has a mystical experience of the Divine Bread-body of Christ. It is this mystical experience that, at times, results in physical healing as reported by Yonggi Cho23 and others mentioned earlier.


Conversely, “ whoever eats the bread and drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord…..For anyone who eats and drinks without recognizing the body of the Lord eats and drinks judgment on himself. That is why many among you are weak and sick, and a number of you have fallen asleep” (1 Corinthians 11:27,29,30). The healing power, when reverently partaken and the harmful effect, when unworthily eaten, implies a mystical empowerment of the elements of bread and wine.   


Divine Guidance Mysticism

As one grows in mystical experience through meditation of the Word, a life of faith, a commitment to personal holiness and personal prayer, the Holy Spirit will guide and lead one, every moment of the day. 


One method He adopts is by testifying to one’s spirit. The Bible says: “the (Holy) Spirit himself testifies with our spirit ”(Romans 8:16). One of the two ways in which the Holy Spirit testifies to one’s spirit, is through a special “peace” and “joy”, when one prays or thinks about an issue. The other way   in which the Holy Spirit testifies to one’s spirit is through a feeling of “spiritual uneasiness or heaviness” when one thinks or says or does something that He does not approve of. Another manner the Holy Spirit guides is by speaking to us through “inner voice”. Graham Fitzpatrick says: “The inner voice of God the Holy Spirit is not audible to human ears, although God can speak and be heard audibly. (It) can only be heard in the realm of the thoughts of your mind and your spirit”24 Inner voices are thoughts placed by the Holy Spirit in one’s mind. The Holy Spirit also imparts knowledge through visions, dreams, prophetic messages, tongues (glossolalia) and interpretation of tongues.   

Divine Gifts Mysticism

The “Pentecostal Experience” is the next level of mystical experience. When one invites the Holy Spirit into one’s life and is baptized in the Holy Spirit, one has the Pentecostal Experience. In most cases the Pentecostal Experience is accompanied by gifts of the Holy Spirit, especially the gift of tongues (glossolalia). As one prays in the Spirit, the Holy Spirit intercedes. Pastor Oral Roberts25 says that, on certain occasions God will reveal, what the Holy Spirit is praying.1Thessalonians 5:17 advises believers to pray continually. Yonggi Cho26 says that the Holy Spirit within is praying without ceasing and that if one listens, one can hear the Holy Spirit praying within.


Divine Sanctification Mysticism


The “Tabernacle Experience” is the next level of mysticism. One enters the gate of the Courtyard of the mystical Tabernacle within one with thanksgiving and the Courtyard itself with praise (ref. Psalm 100:4). One thanks God for what He has given, positive and negative. One praises God for what He has done.


One comes to the Alter of Burnt Offering – the Calvary Cross where one was saved and redeemed from every sin and curse, from every hurt and disease, from every want and bondage. One comes to the Bronze Basin where one is convicted and cleansed by the Word of God (ref. Ephesians 5:26). “If we confess all our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness” (1John 1: 9). Divine Sanctification occurs at the Alter of Burnt Offering and at the Bronze Basin. As one forgives everyone and prays for emotional healing, the good Lord grants inner healing. As one prays the roots of sin are burned out by the power of the Holy Spirit who imparts inner sanctification. 


Divine Empowerment Mysticism

One comes into the Holy Place, to the seven-branched Lampstand that is to the sevenfold Holy Spirit of God where one is empowered by the fruits and gifts of the Holy Spirit. At the Table of Consecrated Bread one is empowered by the ever-fresh Bread – the Word of God.  


Divine Rest Mysticism 

One comes to Alter of Incense, worshipping God with prayers, intercessions and supplications for the world, nation, church, ministries, community, family, business or profession and other needs, knowing that “whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours” (Mark 11:24). Bible says: “Cast all your anxiety on him, for he cares for you” (1Peter 5:7). Jesus bids, “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest” (Matthew 11:27). Book of Hebrews says: “There remains, then a Sabbath-rest for the people of God; for anyone who enters God’s rest also rests from his work, just as God did from his” (Hebrews 4:9-10).  If one surrenders all the cares, and burdens to Jesus, He will give that rest here on earth. Jesus, who Himself is peace (Ephesians 2:14) gives His peace (John 14:27), which transcends all understanding (Philippians 4:7).


Divine Bride Mysticism 

One responds in “bridal love” (as M. Basilea Schlink says)27 to Jesus and expresses one’s fond love to Jesus. One perceives that one is “Sin” before the holiness of Jesus. He, the Bridegroom, who loves much, has shed His own blood on the Calvary Cross and has purchased the right to enter the Bridal Chamber. As one beholds His radiant countenance radiating love, the beauty that is “outstanding among ten thousand” (Song of songs 5:10) enthrals one. The entrance to the Bridal Chamber is accompanied by the heavenly wedding music of the Holy Spirit singing within. 


Divine Fatherhood Mysticism 

One enters the Bridal Chamber, the Most Holy Place, with Jesus. One beholds God the Father between the cherubim on the Ark of the Covenant. Eternal Life. Incredible Light. Indescribable Love. One experiences waves of love emanating from the Father and engulfing one. One experiences the Fatherhood of God who is Love, God who loves with an everlasting love (Jeremiah 31:3), God who has engraved one on the palm of His hand (Isaiah 49:16), God who never forsakes though father or mother may forsake (Psalm 27:18). God is so intimately close. One express worshipful loves to God the Father.


Trinitarian Mysticism

God is worshipped for what He is. He is worshipped in the splendour of His Holiness. Worship is offered to God the Father, Jesus the Son and the Holy Spirit. The Triune God. The Holy Trinity. 


Divine Vision Mysticism

The “Beatific Vision” is highest level of mysticism that a person may experience before his physical death. It is the ultimate mystical experience that one can have on earth.


One is transported beyond the Most Holy Place into the Presence of the Heavenly Throne. One experiences God who is I AM WHO I AM (Exodus 3:14). GOD IS. Yet you know that you are. God in His grace has elevated one to a supernatural state. He has granted a direct vision of Himself, the Beatific Vision. This is the ultimate mystical experience. In this experience, one is not annihilated or absorbed into God. One contemplates on “that God IS. GOD IS and you are. But, God becomes intimately present. Enlightened by special illuminations that God grants, one is enabled to contemplate with ineffable joy the Divine Essence. Even as one contemplates, one can hear the Holy Spirit within, raising His voice in singing and worshiping God.


1  Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan et al, History of Philosophy Eastern and Western (London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd,1952), 21.

2  Encyclopedia Britannica, Mysticism (Online. britannica.com.,2001)

3  The New American Encyclopedia, Mysticism (Books, Inc, 1958).

4  The Catholic Encyclopedia, Mysticism (The Encyclopedia Press Inc, 1913).

5  St. John of the Cross, The Ascent of Mount Carmel, Wisdom of Catholicism (London, Four Square Books,1962).  

6  Bertrand Russell,  An Outline of Philosophy (London, George Allen and Unwin Ltd,1961), 275.

7  David Yonggi Cho, The Fourth Dimension (South Plainfield, Bridge Publishing Inc. 1983).

8  Bilquis Sheikh, I Dared to Call Him Father (Pune, Word of Life, 1980).

9  Cyril J Davy, Sadhu Sundar Singh. (Kent, STL Books,1980).

10 Margaret Cleator, The God Who Answers by Fire (Kent, STL Books, 1986).

11 Eusebius of Caesarea, Praeparatio Evangelica – 4th Century A.D.

12 Victor H Ernest, I Talked with Spirits  (Tyndale House Publishers,1970)

13 Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy (London, George Allen &Unwin Ltd., 1945), 758.

14 Encyclopedia Britannica,  Mysticism (Online. britannica.com, 2001).

15 David Yonggi Cho, The Fourth Dimension (South Plainfield, Bridge Publishing Inc. 1983)

16 David Yonggi Cho, (Talk at Kottayam, India, December 1999)

17 Dr. D.G.S. Dhinakaran, Prayer Tower Online Message Gallery (Chennai, 2003)

18 Sandra DeGidio, O.S.M. “The Sacrament of Baptism: Celebrating the Embrace of God” www.AmericanCatholic.org

19 David DiCerto, Come to the Water: The Adult Journey of Baptism” (Catholic News Service, 2005)

20 Ibid

21 Most Rev. Michael Sheehan, Archbishop of Santa Fe, “Why Do Catholics Baptize Infants” www.heartlandparishes.org  

22 Ferne Burkhardt, Mennonites and Catholics Find Common Ground on Adult Baptism” (MWC News Releases 2002)

23 David Yonggi Cho, (Talk at Kottayam, India, December 1999)

24 Graham Fitzpatrick, How to Recognize God’s Voice (Spiritual Growth Books,1984).

25 Oral Roberts, Unleashing the Power of Praying in the Spirit  (Harrison House, Tulsa, 1993).

26 David Yonggi Cho, Key to Church Growth Revival (Talk, 1994).

27 Basilea Schlink, My All For Him  (Basingstoke, Lakeland, 1971).

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